If everything has its beginning of itself, and independently of purpose, it follows that everything would only exist, so as to be alike and not distinct.
And, given that body is homogeneous, it would follow that everything must be sun or moon, or that a man would be only a hand, or eye, or foot.
But as it is this is not so; rather, we see a distinction of sun, moon, and earth; and again, in the case of human bodies, of foot, hand, and head.
Now, such arrangement of separate things as this tells us not of their having come into being of themselves, but shows that a cause preceded them; namely God, the one who makes and orders all.
I thought it would be interesting to adapt this very unique argument into a syllogism for dualism (a less lofty conclusion than Athanasius’).
1) Matter is differentiated in various ways.
For example, an oxygen atom or a carbon atom and etc.
2) This differentiation is contingent and therefore requires a principle of its being.
There is a plurality of material things – that they are one way but they could be another.
3) The principle of differentiation cannot be physical because a physical principle of differentiation would require a physical explanation ad infinitum.
I have argued elsewhere that an essentially ordered series cannot proceed infinitely.
4) The principle of differentiation is therefore not physical.
Therefore dualism is true.